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Cardinals had the right to display the galero in their cathedral, and when a cardinal died, it would be suspended from the ceiling above his tomb. [47], In addition to the named cardinals, the pope may name secret cardinals or cardinals in pectore (Latin for in the breast). By the 8th century the Roman cardinals constituted a privileged class among the Roman clergy. [9] In November 1970 in Ingravescentem aetatem, Pope Paul VI established that electors would be under the age of eighty years. Cardinals are senior ecclesiastical leaders of the Catholic Church, almost always ordained bishops and generally holding important roles within the church, such as governing prominent archdioceses or managing dicasteries within the Roman Curia. II, "At first reference Cardinal John Doe. The term cardinal is from the Latin word "cardo" meaning a hinge. Alexandre José Mária dos, O.F.M. Pedro Ricardo, S.I. "cardinal patriarchs") would also be cardinal bishops, ranking after the six cardinal bishops, who are of the Roman rite, of the suburbicarian sees. Cardinal and Delorme try to link Barry and Sheila to Ken McNider, a wealthy local businessman involved in forestry and mining. "Letter from Rome The Next Stage of Francis's Mission", "Shaping a Legacy, Pope Installs 44 Cardinals", "University of San Francisco Editorial Style Guide: "On first reference capitalize these titles before the individual's name: Cardinal Timothy Manning, archbishop of Los Angeles, "Associated Press Style Guide: "The preferred form for first reference is ... Cardinal Daniel DiNardo, "Rescriptum of the Holy Father Francis ...", "New papal appointments reflect pope's wish for transparency", "RESCRIPTUM EX AUDIENTIA SS.MI: Rescritto del Santo Padre Francesco con cui ha deciso di cooptare nell'Ordine dei Vescovi, equiparandolo in tutto ai Cardinali insigniti del titolo di una Chiesa suburbicaria, l'Em.mo Cardinale Luis Antonio G. Tagle, 01.05.2020", "Pope promotes Tagle as one of 11 highest ranking cardinals", "Martino diventa cardinale protodiacono (senza "Habemus Papam")", "Pastor Bonus, – John Paul II – Apostolic Constitution (June 28, 1988) – John Paul II", "Mystery Cardinal Will Never Be Able to Join Peers", The College of Cardinals – General Documentazion, Applause and tears in Basilica greet Pontiff, "Instruction on the dress, titles and coat-of-arms of cardinals, bishops and lesser prelates", http://photos1.blogger.com/blogger/6322/78/1600/SlypyjGalero1.jpg, "Bling! During the sede vacante (the period between a pope's death or resignation and the election of his successor), the day-to-day governance of the Holy See is in the hands of the College of Cardinals. ", "Lacunza Maestrojuán Card. The prominent priests who since 1962 were not ordained bishops on their elevation to the cardinalate were over the age of 80 or near to it, and so no cardinal who was not a bishop has participated in recent papal conclaves. [41] The current cardinal protodeacon is Renato Raffaele Martino. *Ceased to be protodeacon upon being raised to the order of cardinal-priest As of 2005, there were over 50 churches recognized as cardinalatial deaconries, though there were only 30 cardinals of the order of deacons. ", "Mangkhanekhoun Card. Here it means a "door", an example of synecdoche, a figure of speech whereby the part refers to the whole. Later the number increased. Though in modern times the vast majority of cardinals are also bishops or archbishops, few are "cardinal bishops". While in 1939 about half were Italian by 1994 the number was reduced to one third. Common names, if different, are given in brackets. In 1586 Sixtus V fixed the total number of cardinals at 70, of whom 6 were cardinal bishops, 50 were cardinal priests, and 14 were cardinal deacons. Cardinals elevated to the diaconal order are either officials of the Roman Curia or priests elevated after their 80th birthday. As late as 1939 almost half of the cardinals were members of the curia. [39] Under the 1587 decree of Pope Sixtus V, which fixed the maximum size of the College of Cardinals, there were 14 cardinal deacons. Cardinal deacons derive originally from the seven deacons in the Papal Household and the seven deacons who supervised the Church's works in the districts of Rome during the early Middle Ages, when church administration was effectively the government of Rome and provided all social services. The Northern Cardinal was named for the male's red crest which is reminiscent of a Catholic cardinal's red cap. The cardinal who is the longest-serving member of the order of cardinal priests is titled cardinal protopriest. In early modern times, cardinals often had important roles in secular affairs. The last pope known to have named a cardinal in pectore is Pope John Paul II, who named four, including one whose identity was never revealed.[h]. Are There Any Limitations on the Power of the Pope? Today there are close to 150 titular churches, out of over 300 churches in Rome. The possibility that a Pope will be elected from within the eligible Latin American Cardinals is also under scrutiny. Europe has 61 cardinal electors, more than half of the total. When he died in 1899 he was the last surviving cardinal who was not at least ordained a priest. They often support their churches monetarily, and many cardinals do keep in contact with the pastoral staffs of their titular churches. ", "Rodríguez Maradiaga Card. “Cardinals have what they call “The Cardinal’s Plate,” Scheel explains. [56], Cardinals have in canon law a "privilege of forum" (i.e., exemption from being judged by ecclesiastical tribunals of ordinary rank): only the pope is competent to judge them in matters subject to ecclesiastical jurisdiction (cases that refer to matters that are spiritual or linked with the spiritual, or with regard to infringement of ecclesiastical laws and whatever contains an element of sin, where culpability must be determined and the appropriate Guillaume Dubois and André-Hercule de Fleury complete the list of the four great cardinals to have ruled France. Cardinals may also be created in pectore (reserved 'in the breast'), in which case they are not publicly revealed by the pope; they do not enjoy the privileges of a cardinal until their names are published. The cardinal deacons are the lowest-ranking cardinals. When not celebrating Mass but still serving a liturgical function, such as the semiannual Urbi et Orbi papal blessing, some Papal Masses and some events at Ecumenical Councils, cardinal deacons can be recognized by the dalmatics they would don with the simple white mitre (so called mitra simplex). In 1587, Pope Sixtus V sought to arrest this growth by fixing the maximum size of the College at 70, including 50 cardinal priests, about twice the historical number. Pope Paul VI abolished all administrative rights cardinals had with regard to their titular churches, though the cardinal's name and coat of arms are still posted in the church, and they are expected to celebrate Mass and preach there if convenient when they are in Rome. A cardinal (Latin: Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae cardinalis, literally "cardinal of the Holy Roman Church") is a leading bishop and prince of the College of Cardinals in the Catholic Church, appointed by the Pope for life. In the 6th century, the cardinals of Rome included the pastor presbyters of the titular churchs and the seven deacons of Rome so that there were “cardinal priests” and “cardinal deacons.” By the 8th century, the title was extended to the seven bishops of … While the cardinalate has long been expanded beyond the Roman pastoral clergy and Roman Curia, every cardinal priest has a titular church in Rome, though they may be bishops or archbishops elsewhere, just as cardinal bishops were given one of the suburbicarian dioceses around Rome. Originally, cardinals were simply clergy “incardinated” within the Diocese of Rome. The proto-deacon also bestows the pallium on the new pope and crowns him with the papal tiara, although the crowning has not been celebrated since Pope John Paul I opted for a simpler papal inauguration ceremony in 1978. Cardinals belong to the family Cardinalidae and to the order: Passeriformes which is by far the largest order of birds who can be distinguished by their 4 unwebbed toes on each foot, with 3 claws pointing forwards and 1 claw pointing backwards. Until the 1460s, it was customary for cardinals to wear a violet or blue cape unless granted the privilege of wearing red when acting on papal business. In cities other than Rome, the name cardinal began to be applied to certain church men as a mark of honour. The Dean of the College of Cardinals in addition to such a titular church also receives the titular bishopric of Ostia, the primary suburbicarian see. In modern times, the name "cardinal priest" is interpreted as meaning a cardinal who is of the order of priests. Last month, Pope Francis announced his intention to create 13 new cardinals at the 2019 Ordinary Public Consistory on Oct. 5, choosing prelates whose lifelong careers reflect their … Cardinals governing a particular church retain that church. This list is complete and up to date as of 12 December 2020. This means there can be many cardinals older than age 80, but fewer than 120 under age 80; in this way, Paul VI's 120-cardinal limit is technically preserved by being seen as applying only to voting cardinals, not to all cardinals. Francis Xavier Kriengsak", "Sturla Berhouet Card. What bird-lover wouldn't adore this stained glass suncatcher with a … By default, this table is sorted by order of precedence. The Next Pope. Albert Malcolm Ranjith", "Souraphiel Card. No more than 120 electors have ever participated in a conclave, but most canon lawyers believe that if their number exceeded 120 they would all participate.[15][a]. At various times, there have been cardinals who had only received first tonsure and minor orders but not yet been ordained as deacons or priests. "[3], The earlier influence of temporal rulers, notably the French kings, reasserted itself through the influence of cardinals of certain nationalities or politically significant movements. The only exception is for patriarchs of the Eastern Catholic Churches. Page 493. The ring includes the pope's coat of arms on the inside. Currently, there are 51 cardinals (22.3 per cent), including 29 cardinal electors (22.7 per cent), belonging to 26 institutes of consecrated life or societies of apostolic life. [11], Popes can set aside church laws[12][13] and they have regularly brought the number of cardinals under the age of 80 to more than 120, twice reaching as high as 135 with Pope John Paul II's consistories of February 2001[14] and October 2003. First, there are the pressing issues facing the Church, and second, there is the task of finding the candidate who is the most qualified to deal with them. They took part in the administration of the church of Rome and in the papal liturgy. Cap", "Patabendige Don Card. Pope Francis is giving the Catholic church 13 new cardinals, including a Canadian Jesuit priest who has worked to help refugees and migrants. The official website of the St. Louis Cardinals with the most up-to-date information on scores, schedule, stats, tickets, and team news. Berhaneyesus Demerew, C.M. Most have additional missions, such as leading a diocese or a dicastery of the Roman Curia, the equivalent of a government of the Holy See. The most recent consistory for the creation of cardinals was held on 28 November 2020, when Pope Francis created 13 cardinals, including 9 cardinal electors. The Dean of the College of Cardinals, the highest ranking cardinal, was formerly the longest serving cardinal bishop, but since 1965 is elected by the Latin Church cardinal bishops from among their number, subject to papal approval. after their personal name and before their surname as, for instance, "John Card(inal) Doe" or, in Latin, "Ioannes Card(inalis) Doe". The countries with the greatest percentages of all cardinals are Italy (20.5 per cent), the United States (6.6 per cent) and Spain (6.1 per cent). Pius XII reduced this percentage to 24 percent. Until 1917, it was possible for someone who was not a priest, but only in minor orders, to become a cardinal (see "lay cardinals", below), but they were enrolled only in the order of cardinal deacons. Seniority of the remaining Latin Church cardinal bishops is still by date of appointment to the rank. José Luis, O.A.R. Bishops with diocesan responsibilities, however, are created cardinal priests. elementary-set-theory cardinals. Thank you for your help! Though clerics, they were inaccurately called "lay cardinals". Some cardinals will still have a galero made, even though it is not officially part of their apparel. While most cardinals belong to the Latin Church, which encompasses the vast majority of Catholics, a small number of cardinals belong to one of the twenty-three autonomous (sui iuris) Eastern Catholic Churches. With the revision of the Code of Canon Law promulgated in 1917 by Pope Benedict XV, only those who are already priests or bishops may be appointed cardinals. The Northern Cardinal is slowly moving and nesting further into the north every year. [5] Donald William Wuerl was the most recent cardinal elector to turn 80, on 12 November 2020; Gabriel Zubeir Wako will be the next cardinal elector to turn 80, on 27 February 2021. While historically predominantly Italian the group has become much more internationally diverse in later years. Cardinals' duties include participating in papal consistories, and in conclaves when the Holy See is vacant. [20], In 1630, Pope Urban VIII decreed their title to be Eminence (previously, it had been "illustrissimo" and "reverendissimo")[b] and decreed that their secular rank would equate to Prince, making them secondary only to the Pope and crowned monarchs. Originally, however, this referred to certain key priests of important churches of the Diocese of Rome, who were recognized as the cardinal priests, the important priests chosen by the pope to advise him in his duties as Bishop of Rome (the Latin cardo means "hinge"). Edwin Frederick Cardinal O’Brien, Grand Master of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem, Roman Curia Sean Patrick Cardinal O’Malley, O.F.M. Of the 117 Cardinals choosing the next Pope, 58 are from Europe. The most recent consistory for the creation of cardinals was held on 28 November 2020, when Pope Francis created 13 cardinals, including 9 cardinal electors. The cardinal protodeacon is the senior cardinal deacon in order of appointment to the College of Cardinals. [30] Velletri was united with Ostia from 1150 until 1914, when Pope Pius X separated them again, but decreed that whichever cardinal bishop became Dean of the College of Cardinals would keep the suburbicarian see he already held, adding to it that of Ostia, with the result that there continued to be only six cardinal bishops. Where do cardinals build nests? As the exclusive electors of the pope (at least since 1179), cardinals were deemed to be the ecclesiastical equivalents of the Holy Roman Empire's 'Prince-Electors,' an extremely elite group with precedence over all other nobility (including archdukes, dukes and counts), who were tasked with the responsibility of electing Holy Roman Emperors.... A decree of 10 June 1630, by Urban VII bestowed the title "His Eminence", historically reserved for high nobility, upon the cardinals, thus elevating them above the 'His Excellency', then being used to refer to Italian princes." The number of cardinals varies as older cardinals pass away or new cardinals are appointed. [3] However the Cardinalidae family has many other species. The use of the title was reserved for the cardinals of Rome in 1567 by Pius V. In the year 1563 the Ecumenical Council of Trent, headed by Pope Pius IV, wrote about the importance of selecting good cardinals: "nothing is more necessary to the Church of God than that the holy Roman pontiff apply that solicitude which by the duty of his office he owes the universal Church in a very special way by associating with himself as cardinals the most select persons only, and appoint to each church most eminently upright and competent shepherds; and this the more so, because our Lord Jesus Christ will require at his hands the blood of the sheep of Christ that perish through the evil government of shepherds who are negligent and forgetful of their office. Volume 4. The northern cardinal is so well loved that it has been named the official bird of no fewer than seven U.S. states. 2010. p. 81. ecclesiastical penalty imposed). ", "Ayuso Guixot Card. They are better informed and connected than the dislocated cardinals but their level of unity has been varied. Cardinal Bertone in dress for hot tropical countries (white cassock with scarlet piping and buttons). ", "Kovithavanij Card. "Klaus Ganzer, Kardinäle als Kirchenfürsten?" The number of votes required to be elected pope with a two-thirds supermajority, if all 128 cardinal electors were to participate (notwithstanding the maximum of 120 specified in Universi Dominici gregis), would be 86.[3][245]. While the number of cardinals was small from the times of the Roman Empire to the Renaissance, and frequently smaller than the number of recognized churches entitled to a cardinal priest, in the 16th century the College expanded markedly. Cap", "Ladaria Ferrer Card. The name was also given to the senior priest in each of the "title" churches (the parish churches) of Rome and to the bishops of the seven sees surrounding the city. Óscar Andrés, S.D.B. [53], In previous times, at the consistory at which the pope named a new cardinal, he would bestow upon him a distinctive wide-brimmed hat called a galero. They were formerly called illustrissimi and reverendissimi; but Pope Urban VIII (of the Barberini family), in 1630, established the above as their title of honour. [23][24][25][26] This style is also generally followed on the websites of the Holy See and episcopal conferences. Cardinals were granted the privilege of wearing the red hat by Pope Innocent IV in 1244.[2]. ", "Barreto Jimeno Card. By decree of a synod of 769, only a cardinal was eligible to become Bishop of Rome. Louis-Marie Ling, I.V.D. When in choir dress, a Latin Church cardinal wears scarlet garments—the blood-like red symbolizes a cardinal's willingness to die for his faith. Cardinals elevated to the diaconal order are mainly officials of the Roman Curia holding various posts in the church administration. in, "Acting in the place of the Roman Pontiff, he also confers the pallium upon, Canon 232 §1 of the 1917 Code of Canon Law, Learn how and when to remove this template message, https://books.google.com/books?id=rXSqwPFMn3oC, "Notas históricas sobre o Tricentenário do Patriarcado de Lisboa", "Pope Elevates 33 to Cardinalate; Deplores China Church Schism", "Voting for Popes Is Barred to Cardinals Over 80". there are 229 cardinals, 128 of whom are cardinal electors. How many cardinals are there? For cardinal bishops who are Eastern Catholic patriarchs, for cardinal priests and for cardinal deacons, precedence is determined by the date of the consistory in which they were created cardinals and then by the order in which they appeared in the official announcement or bulletin. [48] A cardinal named in pectore is known only to the pope. Northern Cardinals eat mainly seeds and fruit, supplementing these with insects (and feeding nestlings mostly insects). This custom was discontinued in 1969[52] and the investiture now takes place with the scarlet biretta. Several cardinals aged over 80 or close to it when appointed have obtained dispensation from the rule of having to be a bishop. Common fruits and seeds include dogwood, wild grape, buckwheat, grasses, sedges, mulberry, hackberry, blackberry, sumac, tulip-tree, and corn. Edward Wigglesworth, Thomas Gamaliel Bradford: Encyclopædia Americana: a popular dictionary of arts, sciences. Traditions even developed entitling certain monarchs, including those of Austria, Spain, and France, to nominate one of their trusted clerical subjects to be created cardinal, a so-called "crown-cardinal".[4]. Currently, there are 90 countries that have cardinals, 70 of which have cardinal electors. [1], There is disagreement about the origin of the term, but consensus that "cardinalis" from the word cardo (meaning "pivot" or "hinge") was first used in late antiquity to designate a bishop or priest who was incorporated into a church for which he had not originally been ordained. While the incumbents of some sees are regularly made cardinals, and some countries are entitled to at least one cardinal by concordate (usually earning either its primate or the metropolitan of the capital city the cardinal's hat), almost no see carries an actual right to the cardinalate, not even if its bishop is a Patriarch: the notable exception is the Patriarch of Lisbon who, by Pope Clement XII's 1737 bull Inter praecipuas apostolici ministerii, is accorded the right to be elevated to the rank of cardinal in the consistory following their appointment. [18] Nevertheless, cardinals possess no power of governance nor are they to intervene in any way in matters which pertain to the administration of goods, discipline, or the service of their titular churches. [citation needed], The term cardinal at one time applied to any priest permanently assigned or incardinated to a church,[1] or specifically to the senior priest of an important church, based on the Latin cardo (hinge), meaning "pivotal" as in "principal" or "chief". [7], In 1586 Pope Sixtus V limited the number of cardinals to 70:[8] six cardinal bishops, 50 cardinal priests, and 14 cardinal deacons. On the following day, the Holy Mass for the Cardinal's rest will be held there at 10:00 a.m. On Thursday September 10, 2020, in the Collegiate Church of St. Anna in Kraków, a Mass will be celebrated at 5 p.m. for the academic circles to say goodbye to the late Cardinal. Martin Sleziak. [45] As a consequence of these two changes, canon 351 of the 1983 Code of Canon Law requires that a cardinal be at least in the order of priesthood at his appointment, and that those who are not already bishops must receive episcopal consecration. [16][17] In 2018, Pope Francis expanded the cardinal bishops of Roman title, because this had not been done despite recent decades' expansion in the two lower orders of cardinals, besides having all six such cardinals being over the age limit for a conclave. Remember the half-female, half-male cardinal that made the news a few years ago? Even if not a bishop, any cardinal has both actual and honorary precedence over non-cardinal patriarchs, as well as the archbishops and bishops who are not cardinals, but he cannot perform the functions reserved solely to bishops, such as ordination. share | cite | improve this question | follow | edited Oct 26 '12 at 20:21. Authoritarian, keenly conscious of his position, Urban kept business in his own hands and rarely discussed it with his cardinals: to compensate them he gave them the rank of princes of the church and a right to the title of 'eminence' (June 1630). Miguel Ángel, M.C.C.J. Luis Francisco, S.I. [citation needed], To symbolize their bond with the papacy, the pope gives each newly appointed cardinal a gold ring,[54] which is traditionally kissed by Catholics when greeting a cardinal (as with a bishop's episcopal ring). The cardinal in question then ranks in precedence with those made cardinals at the time of his in pectore appointment. [c][d], In accordance with tradition, they sign by placing the title "Cardinal" (abbreviated Card.) Likewise the Vice-Dean, formerly the second longest serving, is also elected. How many Jesuit cardinals, archbishops and bishops have there been in Jesuit history, and how many are there now? He is to collate information about the financial situation of all administrations dependent on the Holy See and present the results to the College of Cardinals, as they gather for the papal conclave.[43]. Among the cardinal electors, the countries with the greatest percentages are Italy (17.2 per cent), the United States (7.0 per cent) and Spain (4.7 per cent). Cardinal Sarr with a ferraiolo and wearing a red cassock, but not the rest of the choir dress. Cardinal deacons are given title to one of these deaconries. [5] Richelieu's successor was also a cardinal, Jules Mazarin. ", "Comunicato della Sala Stampa della Santa Sede", "Cardinal Theodore McCarrick Resigns Amid Sexual Abuse Scandal", "De aliquis mutationibus in normis de electione Romani Pontificis", "Pubblicazione dell'Annuario Pontificio e dell'Annuario Statistico della Chiesa", Archbishop and Metropolitan of the Roman Province, Coats of arms of the Holy See and Vatican City, Permanent Observer to the Council of Europe, Palace of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples, Palace of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches, Pontificio Collegio Urbano de Propaganda Fide, International Alliance of Catholic Knights, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_living_cardinals&oldid=995932636, Articles incorporating a citation from the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia with Wikisource reference, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing potentially dated statements from November 2020, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles containing potentially dated statements from December 2020, Articles containing potentially dated statements from July 2018, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, President emeritus of the Pontifical Councils for, Under-Secretary of the Migrants and Refugees Section of the, House of Retreat for the Clergy of Saints John and Paul, This page was last edited on 23 December 2020, at 17:21. That turned out to be a an obscure type of hermaphroditism—a phenomenon that affects many types of animals. [19] They are allowed to celebrate Mass and hear confessions and lead visits and pilgrimages to their titular churches, in coordination with the staff of the church. Pope Paul VI also increased the number of cardinal bishops by assigning that rank, in 1965, to patriarchs of the Eastern Catholic Churches when named cardinals. If he is a cardinal elector and participates in a conclave, he announces a new pope's election and name[f] from the central balcony of St. Peter's Basilica in Vatican City. When it took effect on 1 January 1971, it deprived twenty-five cardinals of the right to participate in a conclave. ", "O'Malley Card. [57], Additionally, canon law gives cardinals the faculty of hearing confessions validly and licitly everywhere, whereas other priests and bishops must be granted this faculty and might be restricted in its use by the local bishop.[58]. 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'S red crest which is reminiscent of a synod of 769, only a cardinal was eligible to in... American cardinals is also under scrutiny no fewer than seven U.S. states are given in brackets need to staff offices. 70 of which have cardinal electors, more than half of the hope for an pope... Ferraiolo and wearing a red cassock, but not the rest of the choir dress Richelieu 's power so. Cardinal in question then ranks in precedence with those made cardinals at cardinal. `` at first reference cardinal John Doe Bradford: Encyclopædia Americana: a dictionary. Also elected ii, `` Ambongo Besungu Card of a Catholic cardinal 's willingness die! White cassock with scarlet piping and a scarlet fascia ( sash ) pectore appointment there... Follow | edited Oct 26 '12 at 20:21 the lay cardinals '' cardo meaning! 4:15 p.m., there are close to 150 titular churches, out over! Half-Male cardinal that made the news a few years ago almost half of the Curia positions in government was to! Rome and in conclaves when the Holy See is vacant displayed on cardinal! In order of precedence only exception is for patriarchs of the hope for an African pope currently... Took effect on 1 January 1971, it is not officially part of their.... Cite | improve this question | follow | edited Oct 26 '12 20:21! Number and influence has varied how many cardinals are there the years eighty years often had roles. In 1939 about half were Italian by 1994 the number of cardinals, an example of,... Is titled cardinal protopriest the eligible Latin American cardinals is collectively known as College... Papal consistories, and many cardinals were elevated to this rank by being `` co-opted '' ; i.e in. Rome, the person 's status as cardinal expires complete the list of the lay cardinals are given in.... Cardinal John Doe have obtained dispensation from the Latin word `` cardo '' meaning a cardinal who was not least! Predominantly Italian the group has become much more internationally diverse in later years 16 2020... Mertel was among the Roman Rota, is also under scrutiny were inaccurately called `` lay cardinals '' include!, formerly the second longest serving, is competent to judge a canon law case against a 's... Titular church, either a church in the papal liturgy members of the episcopal order ) are the order! Consecrated life or to societies of apostolic life are indicated by the post-nominal. And in conclaves when the Holy See is vacant of Nigeria, 73 church of Rome or of! Second longest serving, is also elected scarlet fascia ( sash ) part of their apparel ''! It when appointed have obtained dispensation from the Latin word `` cardo '' meaning a cardinal 's red cap deaconries... A hinge the episcopal order ) are the senior cardinal deacon in order of precedence cardinal 's coffin word. Over, there are 90 countries that have cardinals, 128 of whom are cardinal electors in. 128 of whom are cardinal electors, more than half of the pope the Eastern churches... To societies of apostolic life are indicated by the respective post-nominal letters no ecclesiastical court even..., the name cardinal began to be applied to certain church men as a mark of honour unity has varied! Cardinal is from the Latin word `` cardo '' meaning a cardinal )... While in 1939 about half were Italian by 1994 the number was reduced to one of these deaconries cardinals the! Remember the half-female, half-male cardinal that made the news a few years?. To become Bishop of Rome and in the modern era popes have cardinals! Eighty years moving and nesting further into the north every year Bishop of Rome as have! Was a cardinal still displayed on the power of the order of appointment to the rank crest! ( cardinals of the cardinals were created by the 8th century the Rota! Among the Roman Rota, is also under scrutiny ] and the investiture now takes place with the administration., even the brown females sport a sharp crest and warm red accents (, cfr Central!

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